Introduction

Building facades play an important role in shaping the city and are part of an urban space that is responsible for introducing the building. Any type of facade with any type of building materials and at any cost that is built, in addition to physical beauty, creating communication and visual tranquility, should be able to provide comfort, safety and protection of residents and citizens. For this purpose, facade parts, components and fittings must be able to withstand loads and relative displacements on it under the influence of various factors and maintain their stability. Therefore, paying attention to the type and method of facade execution is very important. Therefore, the criteria for designing and executing different facades under the effects of loads on it, such as seismic loads, wind, impact, as well as environmental factors that affect the durability and stability of the facade must be observed.
Due to the fact that the facade of the building is in front of atmospheric factors, care must be taken in choosing the materials for the facade so that the facade is made: firstly, it is resistant to atmospheric factors and secondly it has the necessary beauty and also harmonizes with the facades . For the facade of the building, various materials such as brick, stone, glass, cement, ceramics, various colored stone grains with special adhesives, etc. can be used

Introducing a variety of wet and dry Facade

Introduction

This type of facade construction is done in the traditional way (with mortar), including facades that are done in a wet method (with mortar), factors such as seismic force, improper execution and improper restraint, cause some materials such as stone to separate from the facade and fall It becomes. Also, one of the most important disadvantages of the wet method is that the space between the wall and the material is completely filled with mortar, which is very likely to crack and break if the stone contracts and expands. The stone facade causes the stone to drop over time and in different weather conditions, and because the masters of the stone scoop did not do it, we have encountered many examples of stones falling and falling due to weather conditions, which in addition to imposing costs on owners, also risks it has.

Due to the industrialization of all walks of life in today’s world and the sensitivity to saving time, cost and accuracy in
execution, the construction industry has also changed and is moving towards industrialization. It is very receptive, if
the various departments and the engineering community can support the dry method, we will achieve very good
results in the construction sector.

Introduction

Advantages and features of dry façade method:​

Reduce runtime With the passage of time and the advancement of technology in the construction industry, time plays a fundamental and very important role in this industry and the methods designed and proposed by building experts have all been weighed against this important factor and it can be said that with the benchmark of this important factor lasting Have been destroyed. With a little reflection, we find that dry façade can reduce the execution time by up to 50% and even reduce the negative effects of ambient temperature to about zero, and due to the lack of mortar and traditional methods, it is possible to activate several fronts simultaneously in the upper sections. And the downside increased the speed of execution more and more, and of course other cases such as the use of trained teams, instead of traditional and non-technical forces and lack of training in old, traditional methods, as well as the use of industrial tools and machines to do things in modern methods. In addition to having a direct impact on execution time and preventing possible rework, it will certainly have a significant impact on increasing the quality of execution. Of course, another advantage of dry methods that have a great impact on the completion time of projects is the possibility of starting the facade with a short distance from the end of the building skeleton.

Execution of dry facade with various materials including stone, ceramic, terracotta, wood, etc. by industrial method,
which is the result of years of experience, study and research and study of various similar foreign methods in different
countries.

For many years, facades inside and outside the building have been executed by people without the necessary training with sand and cement mortar, which apart from imposing high weight on the building, which due to the importance of buildings are resistant to earthquake force and direct relationship between earthquake lateral force and weight Due to the different coefficients of heat transfer and also the different rate of expansion and contraction of the mortar part behind the stone or ceramic, etc., compared to the exterior materials and the existing hardening part, we see that over time, the stones have separated. And even wire scoops do not prevent them from falling
Due to the precise technical and engineering design of the facade, including the infrastructure and precise design of the dimensions and plates for each project according to the openings, building height, use and other factors and the possibility of ordering stones and consumables while reducing waste and execution time , Will have a significant impact on the quality of performance.
With the industrial production of facade substructures, including iron, aluminum or galvanized and steel profiles, as well as facade materials, the possibility of human error in various sectors, including the percentage of mortar mixing, etc., will be greatly reduced and therefore will have a significant impact on increasing quality.
One of the problems that we usually see in traditional methods is the creation of non-coplanar joints that occur after grouting due to the displacement of stone, etc. and out of the initial regulation, and usually can not be repaired without damage, but in dry methods because No hardening material (mortar) is used, During the execution and even after the completion of the work, it is possible to easily adjust the possible errors, even up to a millimeter, and even during the years of operation, it is possible to move and correct each stone or ceramic, and so on

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Reduction of about 100-80 kg of weight per square meter of the facade surface compared to the slurry method, which will have a great impact on reducing the seismic force, and if the facade is seen dry at the beginning of the building design, with a significant reduction in building weight Not only will the cost not increase, but the weight of the skeleton and foundation will also have a significant reducing effect on the final price.

It is important to note that ordinary facades definitely need to be repaired and re-enclosed after a few years, which
means imposing additional costs that the employer has to bear for the facade after a while, and at the end of the work
due to the useful life of the grout. It is about 10-15 years old, the whole layer of mortar as well as the relevant stone
should be demolished, which means that if a cost is spent for the implementation of grout facades after the
completion of the building, it should be considered completely depreciated.
However, in the implementation of dry facades, due to industrial installation, there is no need for repair and
maintenance costs over time, and in case of damage, each of the plates can be repaired and replaced, and there is
no need for total destruction or repair, even after Its useful life (over 50 years) can be used to recycle all materials
used, including substrate metals (ferrous or aluminum) and most importantly the consumed stone or ceramic, and
each of these materials in other places and neighborhoods depending on the type. The user, and this means that all
costs incurred for the implementation of this facade will be returned to the employer after the completion of the
building, in terms of a standard percentage of material depreciation.

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As mentioned before, reducing the weight of the building is directly related to reducing the seismic force on the buildings and will be in line with the remarks and special points of the Iranian Earthquake Code (2800) and other earthquake regulations in the world and infrastructure design and materials of each facade based on standard design principles. And is in accordance with the conditions set forth in Iranian Bylaw 2800 and is connected to the main structure of the building, which means that during an earthquake, the facade and related accessories are moved separately by changing the lateral location of the structure and this prevents the facade from flaking and parts falling. It will be similar to a slurry facade and therefore will reduce human casualties and other damages caused by the collapse of the facade.
By creating a distance that the exterior surface of the facade creates with the main body of the building, while the presence of air in this distance will play the role of sound and thermal insulation, it can be done with calculations made to the construction site in terms of climate according to relevant standards (topic). 19 National Building Regulations of Iran) considered suitable thermal and acoustic insulation and easily installed, and even this space can be used to pass the system of mechanical and electrical installations.

Technical specifications of dry brick façade

Superior and different thinking

The executive approach of brick facades in most construction projects in the country is the mortar system. This system is done in the old way and not much attention has paid improving its quality. By offering a new industrial method in order to improve upgrade the use of bricks and take advantage of its inherent feature and finally the restoration of bricks, Jourchin company has taken action as the main indigenous material of Iran. The goal of this company is to correct the existing patterns in façade design and facilitate its implementation and to revive the significant styles, techniques and patterns of the past and to integrate them in modern designs.

Unique design

Jourchin company is proud to combine the valuable experiences of past architects with modern technology and has made it possible to implement bricks in a dry manner. The design method of execution is such that it is completely project – oriented and any type of architectural structure with different layouts  and different brick dimensions, considering that the façade of the building is facing the atmospheric factors, the executed façade is resistant to these factors. It also has the necessary beauty and is in harmony the façade of the adjacent buildings. It is designed and implemented by the company’s experienced engineers. In this method, while facilitating the execution method, most of the disadvantages of brick execution have been eliminated in the form of mortar.

Integrity and high resistance

In this method, a high strength integrated shell is created using a façade retaining structure that is responsible for bearing the load and connecting the shell to the building structure, as well as special fittings that are responsible for maintaining the brick. The structure of this complex is designed in such a way that while it is firmly connected to the skeleton of the building, it will show resistance to earthquakes in a completely separate way and the shell will integrate the movements caused by the earthquake in an integrated way.

Components of dry brick façade

Shell – bearing structure

In all methods of applying dry faced, the shell – bearing structure which is responsible for bearing the load and connecting the shell façade to the building structure, is of particular importance. These structures are usually made of iron profiles, but due to the use of welded joints, they don’t have proper strength.

The structures designed by jourchin company are bolted in this way, in each project, the relevant calculations are performed separately and a special structure for the same project is constructed. The structure of this complex is designed in such a way that while it is firmly connected to the building, it will show resistance to the earthquake completely separately and the shell will completely dissipate the movements caused by the earthquake.

Brick fittings and rails

Brick retaining joints are attached to the retaining structure and are designed in different projects according to the different methods of brick arrangement. These joints are made of galvanized sheets and their thickness will vary according to the calculations performed. They are also resistant to decay transfer a small amount of weight to the structure.

In order to prevent the earthquake forces from being installed on the brick parts, shock absorbing rubbers that are resistant to different climatic conditions have been installed at the connection of the brick with the rails, which will reduce the pressure on the brick and prevent. It from breaking and it also fixes the brick to the rail.

Special brick for dry façade

The bricks that will be used as the final coverage are designed in full detail and have special physical characteristics.

By researching the types of bricks, the best option with maximum resistance to breakage and minimum water absorption capacity is refractory brick.

Below the picture, the façade of the building on the ground floor is mortar and dandruff, but the dry floor façade is without dandruff

Conclusion

According to the detailed study of the no.714 criterion, which includes structural design instructions, requirements, functional criteria and implementation exterior facades of buildings, as well as providing appropriate solutions, to prevent the impact of seismic loads, wind, impact and other environmental factors and control them.

Therefore, the instructions and details in this regulation of the road, housing and urban research center, the requirements for the basic and technical implementation of brick stile in towers are not provided as mortar and the mortar used is only used to connect bricks in a stacked state and connect shell 10 cm is recommended by dry connections to the structure or carrier wall and for the implementation of mortar brick tile the emphasis is on locks and attachment to the structure and the implementation of methods to control it.

Also, according to the above – mentioned cases, it is necessary to mention that in the brick mortar façade:

  • – It’s execution speed is low.

    – It’s weight twice as much as dry facades.

    – In some cases, we see dandruff.

    – It is not resistant to earthquakes.

Ceramic facade​

Due to the high price of stone and the load that stone imposes on the building, in some countries, the use of ceramics
as a facade of the building has become quite popular. Ceramic facade weighs less than stone. Ceramic facades are
divided into two categories:
– Restrained or dry ceramic facade including porcelain ceramic facade and ventilated ceramic facade
– Attached ceramic facade
The term porcelain refers to a wide range of ceramic products that have a high firing temperature. The reason for
baking porcelain at high temperatures is the nature of glass, as well as low porosity in porcelain. Dry porcelain
ceramic facade is one of the most up-to-date building facades in the world, which is executed by dry installation
method. Dry porcelain ceramic is the dry facade covering, which is the most important part of this type of facade and
should have sufficient strength in a single module and the lowest possible water absorption. Dry porcelain ceramic
facade is commonly used for various commercial, office, residential as well as interior parts of buildings, terminals
and metro stations, etc.
Dry porcelain ceramics produced for facades are offered in two general forms in the market of the country’s
construction industry, which include hollow porcelain ceramics and full-porcelain ceramics, which are also called onecentimeter ceramics or full-blown ceramics.

Installation method with clips and horizontal rails :​

In this method, hollow porcelain dry ceramics with a specially designed grooved section are placed on horizontal aluminum rails and horizontal rails are connected on iron or aluminum substructure. The thickness of the hollow ceramics in this system will be less and as a result the finished weight of the facade will be lighter.

Execution systems of solid dry porcelain ceramic facade - one centimeter

Visible method:

In this method, dry porcelain ceramic tiles are connected to the substructure aluminum rails at specified intervals by stainless steel clipless parts. The color of the clips is electrostatically matched to the selected ceramic color by the polyester color, and high-quality EPDM rubbers are placed at the junction of the ceramic to the rail to prevent the ceramics from slipping.

Visible installation method
Porcelain ceramic facade with Kiel system

KAIL system:

Kail system fittings are, in fact, hidden mechanical joints without the need for glue, which have been created to cover the facade with a variety of materials. This system is widely used in the construction industry to cover facades, interior and exterior walls and even roof surfaces (exposed to rain). In this method, like the previous method, the clips and the ceramic holder will not be visible, the method and the keel system are done using the undercut machine. In this method, special anchors are installed inside the ceramic, which requires an undercut machine to create a hole. The undercut machine creates a puffy cross section so that the anchor is inserted into the ceramic and its blades open in the created space.

Porcelain ceramic facade with Kiel system

Groove system:

In this method, grooves are first installed on the back of the ceramics by an automatic grooving machine. Special grooves are made in two opposite directions and then the clamps are completely tightened by the special adhesive inside these grooves due to their protrusions. The ceramics are then placed on the rail through the clamp and regulated in place by a screw installed on the clamp. Dry facade performance requirements must be fully implemented and no items related to materials and infrastructure should be omitted, as the slightest shortcoming will cause the greatest damage.